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1.0 The Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide

List of Figures

Figure 1-1: Types of Drainage Produced by Sulphide Mineral Oxidation
Figure 1-2: Overall ARD Management Plan
Figure 1-3: Applying an Environmental Management System to ARD

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2.0 The Acid Rock Drainage Process

List of Tables

Table 2-1: Common Sulphides Known or Inferred to GenerateAcid when Oxidized (Plumlee, 1999)
Table 2-2: Typical NP Values and pH Buffering Ranges for Some Common Minerals (Jambor, 2003; Blowes et al., 2003; BCAMDTF, 1989)

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List of Figures

Figure 2-1: Roman Portal with Acid Rock Drainage – Spain
Figure 2-2: Generalized Conceptual Model of Sources, Pathways and Receiving Environment at a Mine or Processing Site
Figure 2-3: Ficklin Diagram Showing ARD, NMD, and SD as a Function of Dissolved Base Metal Concentrations (Plumlee et al., 1999)
Figure 2-4: Diagram Showing ARD, NMD, and SD as a Function of Sulphate Concentrations
Figure 2-5: Ficklin Diagram Showing Selected Principles that Govern Mine Water Quality (Plumlee et al., 1999)
Figure 2-6: The Global Sulphur Cycle (Stumm and Morgan, 1996). Global Fluxes in Millions Tons of Sulphur per Year and Inventories in Millions Tons of Sulphur
Figure 2-7: The Biogeochemical Sulphur Cycle
Figure 2-8: Model for the Oxidation of Pyrite (Stumm and Morgan, 1981). (The numbers in brackets refer to the reactions presented in Section 2.6.4)
Figure 2-9: Schematic Illustration of Normalized Sulphide Oxidation Rates with and without Bacterial Mediation (Robertson and Broughton, 1992)
Figure 2-10: Stages in the Formation of ARD (Broughton and Robertson, 1992). (The numbers in brackets refer to the reactions presented in Chapter 2.6.4.)
Figure 2-11: Schematic Illustration of Factors that Affect Sulphide Oxidation and Modify Mine Drainage during Transport
Figure 2-12: Schematic Illustration of the Effect of Temperature on Normalized Sulphide Oxidation Rates (Robertson and Broughton, 1992)
Figure 2-13: Two-Stage Process for Pyrite Oxidation in a Tailings Impoundment (Wunderly et al., 1996)

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3.0 Corporate, Regulatory, and Community Framework

List of Tables

Table 3-1 : Risk Management Procedure for Mine Sites (modified from Lee, 1999)
Table 3-2: Integrating Risk Approach into ARD/ML Management

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List of Figures

Figure 3-1: Framework for ARD management
Figure 3-2: Hierarchical relationship between Global, National and Local Elements of the Framework
Figure 3-3: Conceptual ARD Management Framework
Figure 3-4: Sustainable Development Balance

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4.0 Defining the Problem – Characterization

List of Tables

Table 4-1: Mine Phase Objectives and Activities
Table 4-2: Characterization Activities by Mine Phase
Table 4-3: Source Material Characterization Activities by Mine Phase
Table 4-4: Geologic Characteristics of Mineral Deposits that Affect Their Environmental Signatures (Plumlee, 1999)
Table 4-5: Australian Guidance on Sample Numbers (Australian Government Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, 2007)

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List of Figures

Figure 4-1: Characterization Chapter Road Map
Figure 4-2: Major Steps Involved in Extraction Metallurgy of Metals
Figure 4-3: Sources and Pathways of ARD, NMD, and SD in a Pit during Operation and Closure
Figure 4-4: Sources and Pathways of ARD, NMD, and SD in Underground Workings during Operation and Closure
Figure 4-5: Sources and Pathways of ARD, NMD, and SD in a Waste Rock Pile
Figure 4-6: Sources and Pathways of ARD, NMD, and SD in a Subaqueous Tailings Storage Facility
Figure 4-7: Typical Data Requirements of a Conceptual Site Model (CSM)
Figure 4-8: Source Material Geochemical Testing Program Components
Figure 4-9: Water Balance Box and Arrow Diagram

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5.0 Prediction

List of Tables

Table 5-1: Methods for Geochemical Characterization
Table 5-2: Geologists Observations and Logging of Core for ARD Analysis
Table 5-3: Example Chemistry Table
Table 5-4: Example ABA
Table 5-5: AP and NP of > 2 mm and < 2 mm waste rock particle size fractions (from Price, 2010)

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List of Figures

Figure 5-1: Generic Prediction Program Flowchart
Figure 5-2: Generalized Flowchart for the ARD Prediction Approach at Mine Sites (after Maest and Kuipers, 2005)
Figure 5-3: Conceptual Model Showing Metal and Acid Source Regions at Iron Mountain and Downstream Transport Pathways to the Sacramento River
Figure 5-4: Flowchart for Metal and Acid Source Regions at Iron Mountain and Downstream Transport Pathways to the Sacramento River
Figure 5-5: Schematic Illustration of Geochemical Characterization Program (modified from Maest and Kuipers, 2005)
Figure 5-6: Example Plot of NP from Total Carbon vs. NP from Modified Sobek
Figure 5-7: Example Plot of Total Sulphur vs. Sulphide Sulphur
Figure 5-8: ARD Rock Type Classification Plot Based on ABA and NAG Test
Figure 5-9: Example Plot of Metal Loadings vs. Sulphate Content
Figure 5-10: Humidity Cells
Figure 5-11: Example Plot of Kinetic Test Results
Figure 5-12: Wall Washing
Figure 5-13: Test Cells for Waste Rock
Figure 5-14: Test Plot for Paste Tailings – Somincor Neves Corvo Mine, Portugal
Figure 5-15: Example of Block Model Use: ARD Potential of Pit Highwall Above Final Pit lake
Figure 5-16: Example of Block Model Use: ARD Potential of Pit Wall after Cessation of Mining
Figure 5-17: Molar ratio of (Ca+Mg)/SO4 representing sample specific NPR values for two humidity cells
Figure 5-18: AP versus NP (from Price, 2010)
Figure 5-19: A decline in drainage pH resulting from the oxidation of ammonium (from Price, 2010)
Figure 5-20: An initial decline in seepage pH from exchange of cations in neutral mine drainage for H+ in acidic organic soils
Figure 5-21: Seepage pH versus time at the Island Copper Mine (from Morin and Hutt, 1997)
Figure 5-22: NNP versus NPR for a Proposed Cu-Au Mine (from Price, 2010)
Figure 5-23: Decision Tree for the Determination of Acid Generation Potential (AMIRA, 2002)
Figure 5-24: Example Plot of ABA Results and ARD Criteria
Figure 5-25: Generalized Model Process

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6.0 Prevention And Mitigation

List of Tables

Table 6-1: Forms of Codisposal
Table 6-2: Benefits and Considerations of Codisposal
Table 6-3: Benefits and Limitations of Alkaline Amendments
Table 6-4: Considerations and Limitations of Soil Covers
Table 6-5: Benefits and Disadvantages of Synthetic Covers
Table 6-6: Some Considerations for Subaqueous Disposal
Table 6-7: Summary of Prevention and Mitigative Measures and Climate Considerations

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List of Figures

Figure 6-1: Options and Effectiveness with Time (TEAM NT, 2004)
Figure 6-2: Waste Rock Pile Structure and Processes (Wilson, 2008b)
Figure 6-3: Adaptive Management Approach to Prevention and Mitigation of ARD
Figure 6-4: Adaptive Management Implementation by Phased Approach
Figure 6-5: Methods for Prevention and Mitigation of ARD
Figure 6-6: Coefficient of Diffusion versus Degree of Saturation for Saturated Porous Media (from Aubertin, 2005)
Figure 6-7: Example Waste Rock Encapsulation Strategy
Figure 6-8: Flow Chart for the Dry Cover Design Process (adapted from O’Kane and Wels, 2003)
Figure 6-9: Covers and Climate Types (from Holdridge et al., 1971)
Figure 6-10: Conceptual Illustration of Processes Affecting Long-Term Performance of Soil Covers (from INAP, 2003)
Figure 6-11: Sample Soil Covers Designs (from MEND, 2001)
Figure 6-12: Sample Configurations of Synthetics in Soil Covers
Figure 6-13: Conceptual Schematic of the Components of a Field Performance Monitoring System (from MEND, 2004a)
Figure 6-14: Subaqueous Tailings Disposal
Figure 6-15: Water Cover Processes
Figure 6-16: State of Solids during Deposition and Consolidation (L); Stage 4 Photo (R)
Figure 6-17: Schematic Plan View, TSF with Three Depositional Zones
Figure 6-18: Prevention and Mitigation Evaluation of Alternatives
Figure 6-19: Comparative Costs for Capillary Barrier Cover (CCBE), Complete and Partial Desulphurization and Water Cover (Bussiere and Wilson, 2006)

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7.0 Drainage Treatment

List of Tables

Table 7-1: Qualitative Comparison of Different Categories of Treatment
Table 7-2: Alkali Materials and Compounds Applied to ARD Treatment
Table 7-3: Comparative Table Different HDS Process Configurations
Table 7-4: Selection Criteria for Lime Neutralization Processes
Table 7-5: Theoretical Minimum Metal Hydroxide Solubility pH
Table 7-6: Criteria for Selecting an Appropriate Mine-Water Treatment Desalination Technology
Table 7-7: Generic Categories of Passive Treatment Systems
Table 7-8: Postulated Removal Mechanisms of Metals and Mining-related Pollutants in Passive Treatment Systems

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List of Figures

Figure 7-1: Generic Mine Water System Indicating Potential Position for a Drainage Treatment Facility
Figure 7-2: Generic Range of Drainage Treatment Technologies
Figure 7-3: Acid Drainage Decision Tree
Figure 7-4: Basic HDS Process Configuration
Figure 7-5: Relationship between Flow Rate and Treatment Plant Capital Cost
Figure 7-6: Integrated Limestone / Lime Neutralization Process
Figure 7-7: Simplified SAVMIN Process Diagram
Figure 7-8: Conceptual High Recovery Membrane Desalination Process
Figure 7-9: Concept SPARRO Process Flow Diagram
Figure 7-10: Conceptual GYPCIX®ion Exchange Treatment Process
Figure 7-11: Generic Biological Sulphate Removal Process Configuration
Figure 7-12: Periodic Table for Passive Treatment
Figure 7-13: Selection of Passive Treatment Technology Chart
Figure 7-14: Selection of Passive Treatment Technology Chart
Figure 7-15: Selected Passive Treatment Components
Figure 7-16: Anoxic Limestone Drain Design
Figure 7-17: Profile view of a reducing and alkalinity producing system

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8.0 Monitoring

List of Tables

Table 8-1: Monitoring Sources, Pathways, and Receptors
Table 8-2: Common ARD Monitoring Components
Table 8-3: Preliminary Intensive Sampling Program
Table 8-4: Impact Assessment Sampling Location Designs
Table 8-5: Monitoring Activity Standard Operating Procedures
Table 8-6: Components of Waste Rock Pile Monitoring Program
Table 8-7: Components of Tailings Storage Facility Monitoring Program
Table 8-8: Aquatic Habitat Information Requirements for Biological Monitoring

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List of Figures

Figure 8-1: Monitoring Chapter Organization
Figure 8-2: Steps in the Development of an ARD Monitoring Program
Figure 8-3: Conceptual Risk-Based Approach - Relationships Between the Contaminant Source the Receptor and the Pathway that Connects them
Figure 8-4: Waste Stockpile Seepage Water Quality Hysteresis
Figure 8-5: Waste Rock Seepage Water Quality Trends (pH, Alkalinity, SO4, Cu, and Zn)
Figure 8-6: Spring Thaw Stream Concentration and Loading Trends (March 23 to June 22)
Figure 8-7: Solute Transport and Thermal Stratification in Lakes
Figure 8-8: Steps in the Development of a Biological Monitoring Program

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List of Photos

Photo 8-1: Collection of a Wall Washing Sample from a Pit Face
Photo 8-2: Waste Rock Lysimeter in an Arid Climate
Photo 8-3: Stream Discharge Monitoring Using a Current Meter
Photo 8-4: Benthic Macroinvertebrate
Photo 8-5: Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling with a Hess Sampler
Photo 8-6: Fish Survey Using Nets

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9.0 Acid Rock Drainage Management and Performance Assessment

List of Tables

Table 9-1: Mine Life Cycle Considerations for the Development of ARD Management Plans
Table 9-2: Technical Disciplines Involved in the Development of an ARD Management Plan
Table 9-3: FMEA Outcomes Combining Likelihood of Failure and Consequences
Table 9-4: Monitoring and Performance Assessment of Success

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List of Figures

Figure 9-1: Flowchart for Performance Assessment and Management Review
Figure 9-2: Hierarchy of Management Tools
Figure 9-3: Open Pit Bench Plan Developed During the Feasibility Phase of a Mine Project
Figure 9-4: Overall Segregation of Various Waste Rock Units Based on their ARD Potential and Physical Characteristics
Figure 9-5: Typical Environmental Management Model
Figure 9-6: The Cycle for Developing and Implementing ARD Management Plans in each Life Cycle Stage
Figure 9-7: Mine Life Cycle Development and Implementation of ARD Management Plans

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10.0 Acid Rock Drainage Communication and Consulting

List of Tables

Table 10-1: Assessment Tool: Indicators of Negative Engagement with Stakeholders
Table 10-2: Sources with More Information on Principles, Approaches, and Techniques for Communication and Consultation with Stakeholders

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List of Figures

Figure 10-1: Chapter 10 Layout/Road Map
Figure 10-2: Types of stakeholder engagement and the intensity with which people are engaged (IFC, 2007). Engagement with stakeholders about an ARD situation under different scenarios is indicated on the figure
Figure 10-3: IAP2’s Public Participation Spectrum
Figure 10-4: A notice board in a mining community in Ghana where materials are on permanent display. ARD monitoring results can be displayed in this way, and constantly updated to show progress

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