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Executive Summary


1.0 The Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide

1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Acid Rock Drainage
1.2 Acid Rock Drainage Management – The Business Case
1.3 Scope and Objectives of the Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide
1.3.1 Scope
1.3.2 Objectives
1.4 Relation to Other Guides
1.5 Approach of the Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide
1.6 Application to Mine Phase
1.7 The Sustainable Development Approach
1.8 Layout and How to Use the Guide
1.8.1 Layout
1.8.2 How to Use the Global Acid Rock Drainage Guide
1.9 Chapter References
List of Figures
List of Appendices

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2.0 The Acid Rock Drainage Process

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Acid Rock Drainage, Neutral Mine Drainage, and Saline Drainage
2.3 History of Acid Rock Drainage
2.4 The Acid Generation Process
Introduction to Coal Mine Drainage
C2.1 Introduction
C2.2. Pyrite in Sedimentary Strata
C2.3 Carbonate Minerals in Coal-bearing Strata
C2.4. How Geology Affects Coal Mine Drainage Quality
2.4.1 Characteristics of Acid Rock Drainage, Neutral Mine Drainage, and Saline Drainage
2.4.2 The Global and Geochemical Sulphur Cycles
2.4.3 Acid Rock Drainage Sources
2.4.4 The Sulphide Oxidation Process
2.4.5 Reaction Products from Sulphide Oxidation
2.4.6 Neutralization Reactions
2.4.7 The Acid Rock Drainage Process and Migration
2.5 Concluding Statement
2.6 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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3.0 Corporate, Regulatory, and Community Framework

3.1 Framework for Management of Acid Rock Drainage
3.2 Corporate Guidance
3.2.1 Newmont
3.2.2 Rio Tinto
3.2.3 Relationship to Other Requirements and Issues
3.3 Sustainability and Community Considerations
3.4 Global Regulatory Guidance
3.5 Country Regulatory Guidance
3.5.1 Commonalities in the Regulatory Regimes
3.5.2 United States of America and its States
3.5.3 Canada and its Provinces and Territories
3.5.4 Australia, its States and Territories
3.5.5 European Union (EU)
3.5.6 South Africa
3.5.7 New Zealand
3.5.8 Brazil
3.5.9 Indonesia
3.6 Risk Considerations
3.7 References
List of Tables
List of Figures


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4.0 Defining the Problem - Characterization

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Site Characterization Approach
4.2.1 Mine Life Cycle Phases
4.2.2 Sources of Acid Rock Drainage
4.2.3 Conceptual Site Model Development
4.3 Components of Site Characterization
4.3.1 Geo-environmental Models
4.3.2 Source Material Geochemical Characterization
4.3.3 Watershed Characterization
4.3.3.1 The Hydrologic Cycle
4.3.3.2 Water Balance
4.3.3.3 Assimilative Capacity of the Receiving Environment
4.3.3.4 Biological Receptors
4.4 Summary
4.5 References
List of Tables
List of Figures


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5.0 Prediction

5.1 Introduction
Introduction to CMD Prediction
5.2 Objectives of Prediction Program
5.3 The Prediction Approach
5.3.1 Acid Rock Drainage/Metal Leaching Characterization
5.3.2 Prediction during Different Phases of the Mine Life
5.3.3 Water Quality Prediction
5.4 Prediction Tools
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Geological and Lithological Investigations
5.4.3 Hydrogeological/Hydrological Investigations
5.4.4 Introduction to Geochemical Characterization
5.4.5 Sample Storage and Preparation Prior to Analysis
5.4.6 Summary of Testing Requirements
5.4.7 Physical Characteristics
5.4.8 Total and Near-Total Solid-Phase Elemental Concentration
5.4.9 Mineralogical Properties
5.4.10 Net Acid or ARD Potential
5.4.11 Short-Term Leach Tests
5.4.12 Laboratory Kinetic Tests
5.4.13 Field Methods
5.4.14 Data Management
5.4.15 Quality Assurance/Quality Control
5.4.16 Screening and Evaluation Criteria
5.4.17 Reporting
5.5 Modeling of Acid Rock Drainage, Neutral Mine Drainage, and Saline Drainage for Characterization and Remediation
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Geochemical Modeling
5.5.3 Hydrological Modeling
5.5.4 Hydrogeological Modeling
5.5.5 Gas Transport Modeling
5.5.6 Statistical Evaluation
5.6 Conclusions
5.7 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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6.0 Prevention And Mitigation

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Goals and Objectives of Prevention and Mitigation
6.3 Approach to Acid Rock Drainage Prevention and Mitigation
6.4 Drivers of Acid Rock Drainage
6.4.1 Physical Factors
6.4.2 Geochemical Weathering Processes
6.4.3 Climate and Physical Environment
6.5 Phased Approach
6.6 Overview of Best Practice Methods
6.6.1 Avoidance
6.6.2 Re-mining
6.6.3 Special Handling Methods
6.6.4 Additions and Amendment Methods
6.6.5 Water Management Methods
6.6.6 Engineered Barriers
6.6.7 Water Cover Methods
6.6.8 Drained / Sub-Aerial Tailings Deposition Methods
6.7 Selection and Evaluation of Alternatives
6.8 Design and Construction Considerations
6.9 Maintenance and Monitoring Considerations
6.10 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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7.0 Drainage Treatment

7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Risk-based approach
7.2 Objectives of Mine Drainage Treatment
7.3 Mine Drainage Treatment
7.4 Drainage Sources, Collection and Management
7.5 Mine Drainage Treatment Technologies
7.5.1 Active Treatment Technologies
Aeration systems for treating CMD
7.5.2 Passive Treatment Technologies
History of Passive Treatment
7.5.3 In situ Treatment Technologies
7.6 Treatment Residues and Wastes
7.7 Recovery of Useful Products
7.8 Treatment in the Context of Mine Closure and Post Closure
7.9 Evaluation and Selection of Drainage Treatment Technologies
7.10 Case Studies
7.11 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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8.0 Monitoring

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Objectives of Monitoring
8.3 The Acid Rock Drainage Monitoring Approach
8.3.1 Conceptual and Dynamic System Model Development
8.3.2 Risk Based Approach to Monitoring Program Development
8.3.3 Monitoring Program Development
8.3.4 Data Management and Interpretation
8.3.5 Auditing
8.4 Monitoring Program Components
8.4.1 Acid Rock Drainage Sources
8.4.2 Pathways
8.4.3 Mitigation Measures
8.4.4 Receptors
8.5 Closure and Long-Term Considerations
8.6 References and Further Reading
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Photos

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9.0 Acid Rock Drainage Management and Peformance Assessment

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Developing Acid Rock Drainage Management Plans
9.2.1 Sustainability Considerations
9.2.2 Mine Life Cycle Considerations
9.2.3 Acid Rock Drainage Control – a Multidisciplinary Task
9.2.4 ARD Maturity and the Mine-Life Cycle
9.2.5 Design for Closure
9.2.6 Engineering Design Process
9.2.7 Risk Assessment, Management, and Contingency Plans
9.2.8 Monitoring Performance and Assessment of Success
9.3 Implementing the Acid Rock Drainage Management Plan
Mt. Milligan Project Mini Case Study
9.3.1 Integrating Acid Rock Drainage Management into Mine and Process Operations
9.3.2 Management System Roles and Responsibilities
9.4 Long-Term Considerations
9.4.1 Design Horizon
9.4.2 Long-Term Resources
9.4.3 Information/Institutional Knowledge Retention
9.4.4 Changing Standards/Stakeholder Needs and Expectations
9.5 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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10.0 Acid Rock Drainage Communication and Consulting

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Why Communicate and Consult about Acid Rock Drainage?
10.2.1 Stakeholder Perceptions about Acid Rock Drainage
10.2.2 Benefits of Communication and Consultation about Acid Rock Drainage
General Information on Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage
10.3 Mining Disciplines Involved in Acid Rock Drainage Management and Communication
10.3.1 Integration of Functions
10.4 Planning Communication and Consultation on Acid Rock Drainage
10.4.1 The Focus of Consulting and Communication
10.4.2 Regulatory and Other Requirements for Communication and Consultation
10.4.3 Tailor Objectives of Stakeholder Engagement to the Situation at Hand|]]
10.5 Communication and Consultation about Acid Rock Drainage for each Mining Phase
10.6 Good-Practice Principles and Approaches
10.6.1 Inclusive Engagement
10.6.2 Get in Early
10.6.3 Be Respectful to People and Cultural Norms
10.6.4 Accessible and Transparent Information
10.6.5 Ongoing Feedback and Acknowledgment
10.6.6 Dispute Management and Resolution
10.6.7 The Principles of Risk Communication
10.7 Responsibilities of Regulators
10.8 Guidelines for Acid Rock Drainage Reporting
10.9 References
List of Tables
List of Figures

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11.0 ARD Management in the Future

11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 ARD through the Sustainable Development "Lens"
11.2 ARD Research and Management - Today and Tomorrow
11.2.1 History and Status of ARD Research and Management
11.2.2 The Future of ARD Research and Management
11.3 Stakeholder Roles
References

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Appendices

Acronyms
Glossary

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